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Identification of interacting partners of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) assembly in human lymphocytes

dc.contributor.advisorAsif, Abdul Rahman PD
dc.contributor.authorRahman, Hazirde
dc.titleIdentification of interacting partners of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) assembly in human lymphocytesde
dc.title.translatedIdentification of interacting partners of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) assembly in human lymphocytesde
dc.contributor.refereePöggeler, Stefanie Prof.
dc.subject.dnb570 Biowissenschaften, Biologiede
dc.description.abstractengThe mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an intracellular protein kinase that plays a key role in the control of cell growth, differentiation, cell survival, and cell proliferation. In humans, mTOR deregulation is implicated in parasitic, fungal, bacterial and viral infections, immune disorders, diabetes, obesity, cardiac diseases, renal abnormalities, and various cancers. mTOR was first identified as TOR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It exists in two structurally and functionally distinct complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1, a rapamycin sensitive protein complex, senses the availability of growth factors, nutrients, cellular energy levels, and is actively involved in cellular transcription and translation processes. mTORC1 performs a range of biological functions with the help of its interacting proteins. These interacting proteins act as scaffolds and recruit substrates and regulatory proteins required for mTOR kinase function. The present study was undertaken to identify novel interacting partners of mTORC1 that specifically interact with mTORC1 to enable this crucial cell signaling hub to carry out its biological functions.Human T cells (CCRF-CEM) and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell lines were used to identify novel interacting partners of mTORC1. Endogenous mTORC1 along with its interacting proteins were purified using raptor monoclonal antibodies and immunoblotted to confirm the mTORC1 specific purification. Following confirmation of mTORC1 specific purification by immunoblotting, the remaining IP elutes were resolved on SDS-PAGE and stained with silver nitrate. Protein bands from the gel were excised, processed by in-gel digestion and identified by nano-LC ESI Q-TOF MS/MS analysis. The mass spectrometric identification of endogenous mTORC1 interacting proteins was further validated by expressing the myc-tag raptor pRK5 vector in CCRF-CEM and HEK293 cells. Myc-tag raptor component of mTORC1 was isolated by pulled-down from the cell lysate using an affinity column and conjugated monoclonal myc-tag antibodies using agarose beads. The co-purified elutes were resolved on SDS-PAGE and mTORC1 specific purification was first confirmed by immunoblotting, and later identified by nano-LC ESI Q-TOF MS/MS analysis. A total of 10 novel interacting proteins (hnRNP A2/B1, SRSF7, RP-P0, NCL, DNM2, GAPDH, 2-OADH, GLT25D1, PHB2, Edc4) were identified in both endogenous and myc-tag mTORC1 purifications. Functional annotation analysis demonstrated that these ten proteins are involved in important biological functions. Three proteins, hnRNP A2/B1, SRSF7, and Edc4, are important for mRNA processing while two proteins, RP-P0 and NCL, were involved in transcription and translation. One protein, DNM2, identified in mTORC1 specific purifications, is associated with intracellular trafficking, while two proteins, GAPDH and 2-OADH, are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Moreover, two proteins, GLT25D1 and PHB2, are involved in post-translation modification, protein turnover and chaperone functions. The mass spectrometric identification of Edc4, DNM2, and hnRNP A2/B1 proteins were further confirmed by immunoblotting using protein specific antibodies.Enhancer of mRNA decapping protein 4 (Edc4) was consistently identified as a new interacting protein with mTORC1 in both the endogenous and myc-tag raptor component of mTORC1. Edc4 has a suggested role in mRNA decapping and repression of miRNA mediated translation. The potential interaction of Edc4 with mTORC1 was further confirmed using reverse co-immunoprecipitation. Quantitative co-localization using confocal microscopy demonstrated a high degree of pixel overlapping between Edc4 protein with raptor component of mTORC1 both inside and outside of P bodies. Incubation of cells under leucine starved conditions increased the total expression of Edc4. Leucine is an essential amino acid which is a positive regulator of mTORC1 kinase activity, providing evidence that mTORC1 may be involved in the regulation of Edc4. Furthermore, rapamycin increased total Edc4 protein expression but at the same time decreased the Edc4 interaction with mTORC1, further evidence of mTORC1 involvement in Edc4 regulation. We further examined the effects of rapamycin on Edc4 phosphorylation status. Rapamycin treatment resulted in a significant decrease in total serine phosphorylated Edc4 protein signal, suggesting the involvemnt of mTORC1 kinase activity in the regulation of Edc4. In addition, we observed that rapamycin significantly decreased the total 5´-capped mRNA. These findings suggest that mTORC1, by interacting with Edc4, inactivates the Edc4 through serine phosphorylation, and regulates its expression. This results in hyper-phosphorylated Edc4 which is then no longer available for mRNA decapping activity. The inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin results in an increased amount of dephosphorylated Edc4, and consequently higher cellular decapping activity, and less total 5´-capped mRNA in the cell. These findings provide the first evidence for the pivotal role of mTORC1 in Edc4 regulation. Further in-depth studies are required to get a complete understanding of the biological interplay of mTORC1 signaling in the mRNA decapping process. Functional characterization of these novel interacting proteins may be helpful in understanding the complexity of the mTORC1 network and may offer new targets for therapeutic interventions in human diseases associated with deregulated mTORC1
dc.contributor.coRefereeBrockmöller, Jürgen Prof.
dc.subject.topicBiology (incl. Psychology)de
dc.subject.gerT cellsde
dc.subject.germTORC1 signalingde
dc.subject.gerproteomics and interactomicsde
dc.subject.germRNA degradationde
dc.subject.engT cellsde
dc.subject.engmTORC1 signalingde
dc.subject.engproteomics and interactomicsde
dc.subject.engmRNA degradationde
dc.affiliation.instituteBiologische Fakultät inkl. Psychologiede

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