# Spectral functions of low-dimensional quantum systems

by Piet Dargel

Date of Examination:2012-11-30

Date of issue:2013-01-24

Advisor:Prof. Dr. Thomas Pruschke

Referee:Prof. Dr. Thomas Pruschke

Referee:Prof. Reinhard Noack

Referee:Prof. Holger Fehske

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## Abstract

### English

The focus of this thesis is set on the calculation of spectral functions for low-dimensional quantum systems. At first the quantum many-body problem is introduced and the related spectral functions of interest are defined. In a next step the applied numerical algorithms are presented: Exact diagonalization & Lanczos algorithm, the numerical renormalization group (NRG) and the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) in the formulation of matrix product states (MPS). The main focus is set on the calculation of spectral functions with these algorithms. In particular for the DMRG a new algorithm is presented which combines the Lanczos algorithm with matrix product states. The presented algorithms are applied to different problems. The first system denotes a copper crystal with magnetic (cobalt/iron) impurities. These materials are known Kondo-systems, i.e. they show an untypical increase in the resistivity with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures local moments will develop, which will be screened from the surrounding conduction band electrons. The ground state of the system is a long-range strongly correlated many-body state between conduction band electrons and local moments. In the singleparticle impurity spectral function a so-called Kondo resonance at the Fermi energy is formed below the Kondo temperature. In scanning tunneling microscope measurements the spectral function at the surface - the so-called local density of states - of the copper crystals with buried impurities in varying depth was measured. The goal of this study is to verify the existence of long-range Kondo signatures via a comparison of the spectral functions for impurities with different depth below the surface. Therefore in this work numerical simulations are used to calculate the local density of states at the surface. The single impurity Anderson model (SIAM) is applied which shows the Kondo resonance in the impurity spectral function. In order to calculate the local density of states at the surface of the copper crystal the equations of motion of the SIAM and the Dyson equation are used and then solved by a combination of numerical renormalization group and band structure calculations of the copper crystal (linear combination of atomic orbitals). The simulation for impurities in different depth below the surface and the experimental data are in very good agreement and hence support the measurement of a long-range Kondo signature. Furthermore the simulations allow to determine the Kondo temperature of a single impurity. The focus of the second part is set on the one-dimensional Heisenberg model. The spectral function of interest is here the dynamic spin structure factor. The newly developed MPS-Lanczos algorithm within the DMRG is used to calculate the dynamic spin structure factor. The results are compared to analytic results from the Bethe ansatz. In the end the new algorithm is discussed in respect to existing methods within the DMRG to calculate spectral functions.**Keywords:**Spectral function; Kondo; Density matrix renormalization group; Numerical renormalization group; solid state physics; many-body problems; computational physics; impurity physics; Heisenberg model; condensed matter