Conceptual Planning of Managed Aquifer Recharge in the Context of Integrated Water Resources Management for a semi-arid and a tropical Case Study in Palestine and Brazil: A new Integrated MAR Planning Approach.
by Florian Walter
Date of Examination:2018-07-30
Date of issue:2018-08-07
Advisor:Prof. Dr. Gerhard Gerold
Referee:Prof. Dr. Gerhard Gerold
Referee:Dr. Bernd Rusteberg
Referee:Prof. Dr. Martin Sauter
Referee:Prof. Dr. Heinz Hötzl
Referee:Dr. Elco Luijendijk
Referee:Prof. Dr. Martin Kappas
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EnglishThis thesis focuses on the development, application and evaluation of new integrative approach for the planning of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) concepts in the context of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). The approach combines issues of quantitative water resources management with the idea of MAR to artificially enhance groundwater recharge. To test the approach MAR is applied for two fundamentally different case studies: the tropical coastal region around the city of João Pessoa in Northeast Brazil and the city of Jericho with its neighboring Auja village in the semi-arid Lower Jordan Valley of Palestine. In the tropical case study area of João Pessoa, no acute threats for the local groundwater resources could be detected for the present. The water resources system does, however, reveal a high sensitivity and risk for overexploitation under the assumptions of various scenarios for future development. The results show that this risk could be reduced if addressed in time. A decentralized implementation of several MAR facilities throughout the study area operated with surface runoff from the river network, has been identified as a potential measure to support a sustainable development of the water resources system even under challenging future conditions and a potential increase of the highly water demanding sugarcane plantations. It is suggested to install at least two MAR test facilities in the area, testing surface infiltration technology at one location and direct injection at the other. The semi-arid case study of Jericho-Auja nowadays already suffers from immense water shortage in addition, to high seasonal and annual fluctuations in water supply, coming mostly from several natural springs in the region. A set of measures is suggested that might be combined with a MAR implementation in order to increase the amount of water availability on one hand and reduce the volatility of supply security on the other. The most promising measure of activating new water sources is the implementation of additional deep groundwater wells that penetrate the aquifer beneath the shallow alluvial fan which is strongly overexploited presently. Future scenarios revealed even higher deficits in water supply that could, after the exploitation of all available local water sources and the implementation of a MAR system, only be covered by additional water imports. Also for this case study the installation of at least one MAR pilot plant is recommended, in addition, to immediate actions with regard to the implementation of at least one new deep well. Political restrictions have been neglected for this study. In both studies the application of the suggested new approach lead to valuable results and an increased understanding of the local water resources system. Extended recommendations are given for both areas with a special focus on the enhancement of monitoring systems, since data scarcity is a big challenge in both studies. Without a profound data basis, water resources management is limited to many assumptions and approximations, increasing the level of uncertainty for any results.
Keywords: Managed Aquifer Recharge; MAR; Integrated Water Resources Management; IWRM; Northeast Brazil; Palestine; BRAMAR; SMART-MOVE