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Soil greenhouse gas (N2O, CO2 and CH4) fluxes from cropland agroforestry and monoculture systems

dc.contributor.advisorVeldkamp, Edzo Prof. Dr.
dc.contributor.authorShao, Guodong
dc.titleSoil greenhouse gas (N2O, CO2 and CH4) fluxes from cropland agroforestry and monoculture systemsde
dc.contributor.refereeVeldkamp, Edzo Prof. Dr.
dc.description.abstractengConventional agriculture is the dominant contributor to negative environmental impacts such as the growth in global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the challenges are likely to increase with the increasing global food demand as well as the agricultural expansion. Agroforestry is a sustainable management practice with strong potential to provide ecosystem services and environmental benefits through increasing carbon sequestration, nutrient availability, water use efficiency and biodiversity, and reducing soil erosion and nitrogen losses. Therefore, the establishment of agroforestry practices offers an opportunity to reduce GHG emissions. Previous studies have showed the effects of agroforestry on soil nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) fluxes in many parts of the world. In temperate Europe, the information on the GHG mitigation potential of agroforestry compared to cropland monoculture is still unclear. The present thesis consists of two studies, which was designed to explore whether the conversion of cropland monoculture to agroforestry systems reduces trace gases N2O, CO2, and CH4 emissions from the soil. The study was carried out at three sites varied with soil types in Germany. Each site had adjacent alley cropping agroforestry and cropland monoculture systems and the trees in agroforestry system were planted 1 to 11 years prior to this research. We measured soil N2O, CO2, and CH4 fluxes monthly using vented static chambers at the three sites from March 2018 to January 2020. On each day of gas sampling, soil temperature, water-filled pore space and extractable mineral nitrogen (N) were measured in the top 5 cm. The objective of our first study was to quantify the spatial-temporal dynamics of soil N2O fluxes from cropland agroforestry and monoculture systems, following different crop rotations and fertilization rates. The pattern of soil N2O fluxes were predominantly controlled by soil mineral N in both agroforestry and monoculture systems. The positive relationship between water-filled pore space with soil N2O fluxes during the cropping seasons, indicating soil moisture acts as a limiting factor under N-sufficient conditions. The entire agroforestry systems tended to reduce soil N2O emissions by 9% to 56% compared to monocultures, during the corn phase of the rotation that had typically high fertilization rates. The lowest soil N2O emissions in the unfertilized tree rows (occupied 20% of the agroforestry area) represent a potential for mitigating N2O emissions from croplands. The objective of our second study was to investigate the changes in soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes after conversion from cropland monoculture to alley cropping agroforestry systems. Our results showed that seasonal variations of soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes were strongly regulated by soil temperature and moisture, and the spatial variations were mainly controlled by texture. The establishment of agroforestry systems had no effect on reducing soil CO2 emissions, possibly because there was no significant difference in soil temperature between management systems. Annual soil CH4 uptake in the agroforestry systems was increased by up to 300% compared to monocultures, which may be related to the regulation of trees on soil moisture in agroforestry systems. The present research provides the first insight into the systematic comparison of soil N2O, CO2 and CH4 fluxes from cropland agroforestry and monoculture systems, and it provides a unique dataset for estimating the net balance of carbon emissions after conversion of cropland monoculture to alley cropping agroforestry system in temperate regions. Although soil CO2 emissions showed no differences between management systems, the total annual soil emissions of non-CO2 GHG from agroforestry systems were reduced by 0.22 Mg CO2 eq ha-1 compared to the monocultures. Considering the driving function of soil moisture and mineral N on soil GHG fluxes from cropland agroforestry and monoculture systems, our findings suggest that improved system management (e.g. optimal adjustments of the areal coverages between tree and crop rows) and optimized fertilizer input will enhance the potential of cropland agroforestry for mitigating N2O emissions and increasing CH4 uptake and C sequestration in the long
dc.contributor.coRefereeKnohl, Alexander Prof. Dr.
dc.subject.enggreenhouse gas emissionde
dc.subject.engsoil CO2 emissionde
dc.subject.engsoil CH4 fluxesde
dc.subject.engsoil N2O fluxesde
dc.subject.engclimate changede
dc.subject.engmonoculture croplandde
dc.subject.england-use changede
dc.subject.engshort-rotation coppicede
dc.subject.engcrop rotationde
dc.subject.engnitrogen fertilizationde
dc.affiliation.instituteFakultät für Forstwissenschaften und Waldökologiede
dc.subject.gokfullForstwirtschaft (PPN621305413)de

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