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Governance systems of yarshagumba collection and trade in the border region of India, Nepal and China

dc.contributor.advisorFaust, Heiko Prof. Dr.
dc.contributor.authorWallrapp, Corinna
dc.titleGovernance systems of yarshagumba collection and trade in the border region of India, Nepal and Chinade
dc.contributor.refereeFaust, Heiko Prof. Dr.
dc.description.abstractengWorldwide, the commercial collection of non-timber forest products (NTFP) has increased, with growing demands on domestic and international markets. This provides income opportunities for local people and links usually remote rural areas, where the resources are collected, with global markets. At the same time, it also enforces dependencies, increases the risks of overexploitation and extinction of the resource and often leads to contestation between different actors for access to these lucrative resources. Thus, actors modify and adapt existing governance systems to secure or gain access to the resource and profit from it. This thesis aims to provide an in-depth understanding of negotiation processes among state authorities and non-state actors, which shape governance systems and networks regulating access, extraction and trade of locally available natural resources in borderlands. Central questions are: How do actors adapt governance systems regulating commercial collection and trade of the resource in response to changes in relation to the resource, like an increased resource value? What kinds of production networks emerge in borderlands? What roles do state and non-state actors play in the negotiation processes shaping governance systems that control access to and benefit from commercial NTFP collection and trade in borderlands? The thesis uses the case of yarshagumba collection and trade in the remote high Himalaya of the Nepal-India trans-boundary region within the Kailash Landscape to explore these questions. The common pool resource ‘yarshagumba’ has been transformed from a non-valued natural resource to a highly demanded product on the international market. The study follows an inductive qualitative research approach applying different data collection techniques. The collection and trade of yarshagumba is part of complex political, social and economic systems in the borderlands within the Kailash Landscape. The results show that the local people are vulnerable to some extent, as they depend on the global market developments and are exposed to the governmental regulations, but they are not passive players in the collection and trading systems. They are active participants along with the state authorities in shaping governance systems and trading networks suitable and appropriate to their demands and interests. Local people are not in resistance to government authorities in borderlands, but out of necessity, jointly negotiate spaces with state representatives across borders. As a result of these negotiation processes between actors, I conclude that, in the margins of states, like borderlands, governance systems and networks for commercial collection and trade of NTFP move in and out of legality and use or bypass governmental regulations. Rather than formal rules and regulations, negotiation processes between actors play a key role to determine who has access to the resource and who benefits from the trade network. Thus, these governance systems and networks in borderlands are complex constellations. They are more than institutions. They are an interplay of rights, institutions, power structures, and social and economic relations between actors beyond borders adapting to changing conditions. They are dynamic and differ from resource to resource and from location to location. For sustainable and equitable management of natural resources in margins of states, policy-makers need to consider the political, social and economic dimensions related to natural resource management and resource production networks. A change in the way of thinking is required. Besides other recommendations, governments should reflect on state authorities’ own role, behaviour and involvement in the systems and cross-border
dc.contributor.coRefereeKeck, Markus Dr.
dc.subject.enggovernance of commonsde
dc.subject.enginformal tradede
dc.subject.engglobal production networksde
dc.subject.engnon-timber forest productsde
dc.subject.engophiocordyceps sinensisde
dc.affiliation.instituteFakultät für Geowissenschaften und Geographiede
dc.subject.gokfullGeographie (PPN621264008)de

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