Leaving no one behind: Behavioral response to social exclusion and economic inequalities
von Pooja Balasubramanian
Datum der mündl. Prüfung:2020-05-28
Betreuer:Prof. Dr. Marcela Ibáñez
Gutachter:Prof. Dr. Stephan Klasen
Gutachter:Prof. Dr. Fredrick Carlsson
EnglischEconomic and social Inclusion (multidimensional framework) has been the overarching aim of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. Particularly in countries that have heterogeneous social groups and strong, salient identities, certain minorities do not benefit from the overall economic growth of the country. The increasing economic inequality is negatively associated with economic opportunities for various minority groups. The thesis advances the discussion on consequences of the intersection between such horizontal and vertical inequalities. I use the conceptual framework of the Leaving no one behind report (2015) by the United Nations to study the behavioral responses of the systematic exclusion of disadvantaged and marginalized groups in the following domains: denial of opportunities or pre-market exclusion, unequal access to resources such as income and wealth, and unequal participation in society (non-market interactions). The first study observes subjective earnings expectations for children across different identity groups such as lower caste, Muslims and females relative to the privileged Hindu males. This analysis is an important descriptive study as differences in expected returns to education could explain early school dropouts and demand for human capital accumulation among different social identity groups in India. The study is categorized under the domain of denial of opportunities or pre-market exclusion. The second study addresses how men and women respond to wage inequality - especially when the gender of the advantaged coworker is known. Using a field experiment, we observe the interaction of income and gender based inequality within the labor market. This paper falls in the domain of unequal access to resources or market exclusion. One of the main contributions of the study is to highlight the asymmetric responses of males and females towards inequality depending on who is their reference group.The third and fourth paper focus on reducing inequalities within a relatively less researched domain of non-market interactions. The third paper addresses motivations that encourage altruistic behavior towards economically deprived recipients who belong to a different religious group in India. The fourth paper identifies the importance of solidarity norms that contribute to collective risk sharing, thereby lowering risks of individuals who are economically vulnerable in Colombia. Both the papers study how norms of social preferences such as altruism and reciprocity are associated with age. Inorder to measure the impact of identity based exclusion and existing inequalities, each chapter uses a combination of economic experiments and surveys.
Keywords: Discrimination; Inequalities; Experiments; Social Identity; Exclusion